Hydrazine hydrate is an inorganic compound. It is a colorless and transparent fuming liquid with a faint ammonia odor. It smokes in humid air and has strong alkalinity and hygroscopicity. At atmospheric pressure, hydrazine can form azeotropes with water (the hydrazine content in the azeotropes is about 69%).
Hydrazine hydrate liquid exists as a dimer. It is miscible with water and ethanol, and insoluble in ether and chloroform. It can erode glass, rubber, leather, cork, etc. It decomposes to N2, NH3, and H2 at high temperatures. hydrazine hydrate is very reductive. It reacts vigorously with halogen monomers, HNO3, KMnO4, etc. In the air, it can absorb CO2 and produce fumes.
|Appearance||Colorless transparent liquid|
|N2H4. H2O, %||80.0 Min.||55.0 Min.|
|N2H4, %||51.2 Min.||35.2 Min.|
|Non-volatile Matter, %||0.02 Max.||0.09 Max.|
|Fe, %||0.0005 Max.||0.009 Max.|
|Pb, %||0.0005 Max.||0.002 Max.|
|Chloride, %||0.003 Max.||0.03 Max.|
|SO42-, %||0.002 Max.||0.005 Max.|
|pH (1% water solution)||10~11||10~11|
|TOC, mg/L||5 Max.||5 Max.|
There are four main industrial production methods for hydrazine hydrate, namely, the lassie method, the urea method, the ketone nitrogen method, and the hydrogen peroxide method. The urea method is mainly used in China.
Sodium hypochlorite and sodium hydroxide are mixed in a certain proportion to make a solution. Stir while adding urea and a small amount of potassium permanganate mixture.
The oxidation reaction is carried out by heating directly with steam to 103-104℃. The reaction solution is distilled, fractionated, and concentrated under a vacuum to obtain 40% hydrazine.
Then 80% hydrazine is obtained by caustic soda dehydration and distillation under reduced pressure. Alternatively, ammonia and sodium hypochlorite are used as raw materials.
Add 0.1% bone gum to the ammonia to inhibit the transitional decomposition of hydrazine. Add sodium hypochlorite to the ammonia. The oxidation reaction is carried out under strong stirring at atmospheric pressure or high pressure. Chloramine is firstly produced and the reaction continues to produce hydrazine.
The reaction solution is distilled to recover ammonia. Then the sodium chloride and sodium hydroxide are removed by positive control distillation. The evaporated gas is condensed to a low concentration of hydrazine. Then it is fractionated to produce different concentrations of hydrazine hydrate.
It could mix with water and ethanol in any proportion, not soluble in chloroform and either, Once it meets with carbon dioxide in the air can produce white smoke.
With a weak alkaline and strong reduction, reacts with the acid and it could be combustion by oxidant, It could be used as pharmaceutical intermediates, manufacturing high-purity metals, synthetic fibers, dyes, ADC foaming agent of raw materials, high-pressure boiler oxygen scavenger, reducing agent.
Highly toxic, strongly erodes the skin and blocks enzymes in the body. In acute poisoning, it can damage the central nervous system and in most cases can be fatal. Mainly affects the metabolic function of carbohydrates and fats in the body. It has hemolytic properties.
Its vapors erode mucous membranes and cause dizziness, irritating the eyes, making them red, swollen, and septic. It damages the liver, lowers blood sugar, dehydrates the blood, and causes anemia. The maximum permissible concentration of hydrazine in the air is 0.1 mg/m3.
Staff should be fully protected, and after skin and eye contact with hydrazine, they should flush with plenty of water directly and ask a doctor to examine and treat them.
The working area must be adequately ventilated and the hydrazine concentration in the production area must be checked frequently with appropriate instruments.
Polyethylene plastic drum, net weight 200kg.
It should be stored in a cool, ventilated, and dry storage room at a temperature below 40°C and protected from sunlight. Keep away from the fire sources and oxidizing agents. In case of fire, it can be put out with water, carbon dioxide, foam, dry powder, sand, etc.